Product and Safety Warnings

READ ALL WARNINGS BEFORE USING THIS PUBLICATION

Failure to follow warnings and instructions may results in serious injury or death.

Sections in this Article

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Important Warnings


E-Rigging.com assumes no responsibility for the use or misapplication of any product sold by this firm. Responsibility for design and use decisions rests with the user. All products are sold with the express understanding that the purchaser is thoroughly familiar with the correct application and safe use of same. Use all products properly, in a safe manner and for the application which they are intended.

It would be impossible in the scope of this publication to list all possible dangers and misapplications associated with the use of all products contained herein. However, in order to promote safe rigging habits, the most common hazards associated with the use of these products are listed below:
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Working Load Limit

This is the term used throughout the catalog. There are, however, other terms used in the industry which are interchangeable with the term Working Load Limit. These are: WLL, SWL, Safe Working Load, Rated Load Value, Resulting Safe Working Load, and Rated Capacity.

Never Exceed the Working Load Limit

The Working Load Limit is the maximum load which should ever be applied to a product, even when the product is new and when the load is uniformly applied - straight line pull only. Avoid side loading. All catalog ratings are based upon usual environmental conditions and consideration must be given to unusual conditions such as extreme high or low temperatures, chemical solutions or vapors, prolonged immersion in salt water, etc. Such conditions or high-risk applications may necessitate reducing the Working Load Limit.
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Welding and Modifications Affect the Working Load Limit

Working Load Limit will not apply if product has been welded or otherwise modified. It should also be noted that it is the ultimate responsibility of the end user to determine a Working Load Limit for each application.
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Components Working Load Limits Must Match.

Make certain that components such as hooks, links or shackles, etc. used with wire rope (or chain or cordage) are of suitable material size and strength to provide adequate safety protection. Attachments must be properly installed and must have a Working Load Limit at least equal to the product with which they are used. Remember: Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link.
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Raised Loads

Keep out from under a raised load. Take notice of the recommendation from the National Safety Council Accident Prevention Manual concerning all lifting operations:
"All employees working on cranes or hoists or assisting in hooking or arranging a load should be instructed to keep out from under the load. From a safety standpoint, one factor is paramount: Conduct all lifting operations in such a manner that if there were an equipment failure, no personnel would be injured. This means keep out from under a raised load and keep out of line of force of any load."
Do not operate a load over people. Do not ride on loads.
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Shock Loads

Avoid impacting, jerking or swinging of load as the Working Load Limit could be exceeded and the Working Load Limit will not apply. A shock load is generally significantly greater than the static load. Avoid shock loads.

REMEMBER: ANY PRODUCT WILL BREAK IF ABUSED, MISUSED, OVERUSED OR NOT MAINTAINED PROPERLY


Such breaks can cause loads to fail or swing out of control, possibly resulting in serious injury or death as well as major property damage.
Therefore:
  • Never exceed the Working Load Limit (WLL).
  • Match components properly.
  • Keep out from under a raised load.
  • Avoid shock loads.
  • Inspect products regularly.

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Breaking Strength/Ultimate Strength

Do not use breaking strength (breaking load) as a criterion for service or design purposes. Refer to the Working Load Limit instead.
Breaking Strength is the average force at which the product, in the condition it would leave the factory, has been found by representative testing to break, when a constantly increasing force is applied in direct line to the product at a uniform rate of speed on a standard pull testing machine. Proof testing to twice the Working Load Limit does not apply to hand-spliced slings.

Remember: Breaking Strengths, when published, were obtained under controlled laboratory conditions. Listing of the Breaking Strength does not mean the Working Load Limit should ever be exceeded.

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Regular Inspections

Inspect products regularly for visible damage, cracks, wear, elongation, rust, etc. Protect all products from corrosion. The need for periodic inspections cannot be overemphasized. No product can keep operating at its rated capacity indefinitely. Periodic inspections help determine when to replace a product and reduce rigging hazards. Keep inspection records to help pinpoint problems and to ensure periodic inspection intervals.
Due to the diversity of the products and uses to which they can be put, it would be counterproductive to make blanket recommendations for inspection procedures and frequency. Best results will be achieved when qualified personnel base their decisions on information from rigging and engineering manuals and on experience from actual use in the field.
Frequency of inspection will depend on environmental conditions, application, storage or product prior to use, frequency of use, etc. When in doubt, inspect products prior to each use. Carefully check each item for wear, deformation, cracks or elongation - a sure sign of imminent failure. Immediately withdraw such items from service.
Rust damage is another potential hazard. When in doubt about the extent of corrosion or other damage, withdraw the items from service.
Destroy, rather than discard, items that have been judged defective. They might be used again by someone not aware of the hazard involved.
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General Definitions


Information contained in this catalog is subject to change; all weights and dimensions are approximate. Ratings are stated in short tons (2,000 lbs.) or pounds. All dimensions are in inches; all weights are in pounds, unless stated otherwise.
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Working Load Limit

The Working Load Limit is the maximum load which should ever be applied to the product, even when the product is new and when the load is uniformly applied - straight line pull only. Avoid side loading. All catalog ratings are based upon usual environmental conditions and consideration must be given to unusual conditions such as extreme high or low temperatures, chemical solutions or vapors, prolonged immersion in salt water, etc. Such conditions or high-risk applications may necessitate reducing the Working Load Limit.
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Proof Test Load (Proof Load)

The term "Proof Test" designates a quality control test applied to the product for the sole purpose of detecting defects in material or manufacture. The Proof Test Load (usually twice the Working Load Limit) is the load which the product withstood without deformation when new and under laboratory test conditions. A constantly increasing force is applied in direct line to the product at a uniform rate of speed on a standard pull testing machine.

The Proof Test Load does not mean the Working Load Limit should ever be exceeded.

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Design Factor (sometimes referred to as safety factor)

An industry term usually computed by dividing the catalog Breaking Strength by the catalog Working Load Limit and generally expressed as a ratio. For example: 6 to 1.
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Shock Load

A load resulting from rapid change of movement, such as impacting, jerking or swinging of a static load is referred to as shock load. Sudden release of tension is another form of shock loading. Shock loads are generally significantly greater than static loads. Any shock loading must be considered when selecting the item for use in a system. Avoid shock loads as they may exceed the Working Load Limit.
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Wire Rope & Cable


WIRE ROPE IS A MACHINE. Understand and respect it.
Like any machine, it needs proper care and maintenance for optimal safety and long service life. For a better understanding of wire rope, we highly recommend the Wire Rope User's Manual by the Wire Rope Technical Board.

Refer to the General Warnings Above

These warnings also apply to wire rope. Only additional warnings and information are listed below.
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Rated Capacity

Rated capacity is the load which a new wire rope may handle under given operating conditions and at assumed design factor. A design factor of 5 is chosen most frequently for wire rope. (Operating loads not to exceed 20% of catalog Breaking Strength.) Operating loads may have to be reduced when life, limb or valuable property are at risk or other than new rope is used. A design factor of 10 is usually chosen when wire rope is used to carry personnel. (Operating loads not to exceed 10% of catalog Breaking Strength.)
Responsibility for choosing a design factor rests with the user.
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Matching Attachment's Working Load Limit

Attachments must have at least the same Working Load Limit as the wire rope used
Clips, sockets, thimbles, sleeves, hooks, links, shackles, sheaves, blocks, etc. must match in size, material and strength to provide adequate safety protection. Proper installation is crucial for maximum efficiency and safety.
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Keep out from under a raised load.

Do not operate load over people. Do not ride on load. Conduct all lifting operations in such a manner that if equipment were to fail or break, no personnel would be injured. This means KEEP OUT FROM UNDER A RAISED LOAD, DO NOT OPERATE LOADS OVER PEOPLE AND KEEP OUT OF THE LINE OF FORCE OF ANY LOAD.
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Avoid Shock Loads

Avoid impacting, jerking or swinging of load. Working Load Limit will not apply in these circumstances because a shock load is generally significantly greater than the static load.
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Inspect wire rope regularly

Use inspection instructions as guidelines only. Two of the most important prerequisites for inspecting wire rope are technical knowledge and experience.
Check the general condition of the wire. Also, look for localized damage and wear, especially at wire rope attachments. Inspect all parts that come in contact with the wire rope. Poor performance of wire rope can often be traced back worn or wrong-sized sheaves, drums, rollers, etc. Looks for kinks, broken wires, abrasions, lack of lubrication, rust damage, crushing, reduction of diameter, stretch or other obvious damage. If any of these conditions exists or if there is any other apparent damage to the wire rope, retire the wire rope according to the instructions below.
When in doubt about the extent of the damage, retire the wire rope in question immediately. Without laboratory analysis, it is impossible to determine the strength of damaged or used wire. Thus, you will not be able to tell whether wire rope with any amount of damage is safe to use. Retire the wire rope that is damaged. For specific inspection procedures check various OSHA and ANSI publications.
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Destroy, Rather than Discard, Wire Rope to be Retired

Wire rope that is not destroyed might be used again by someone not aware of the hazard associated with that use. Destroying wire rope is best done by cutting it up into short pieces.
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Measuring Wire Rope Diameter

Below is an illustration that displays the correct method to measure wire rope diameter.
Measure Wire rope
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Wire Rope Clip Installation

It is important to ensure wire rope clips are installed properly. Incorrect installation can reduce the working load limit by 40%. Below are general guidelines for installing wire rope clips.

Parts of a Wire Rope Clip & Assembly 
Parts of a Wire Rope Clip

Clip Installation Diagram

Below is a diagram showing proper clip installation it is imperative that you install the saddle on the live end of the wire rope. An easy to remember saying to help remember proper clip installation is: NEVER SADDLE A DEAD HORSE!
Wire Rope Clip Installation
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Hit Tools Swaging Instructions

  1. Before using this tool, examine and ensure that the bolt and nut of the swager are tight.
  2. Cut cable to the required length and lace the cable through the sleeve so that the end will still protrude after crimping.
    Hit Tools Swaging Instructions
  3. Properly insert sleeve into he correct cavity and line up the sleeve between the swager jaws with the long axis perpendicular to the jaws.
    Cable Crimping Instructions
  4. Swaging Sleeves
    1. Swage each sleeve with the correct number of swages listed in the in the table below following the swage sequence shown below.
      Wire Rope Crimp Instructions
      Cable Diameter Swagers Per Oval Sleeve
      1/32" 1
      3/64" 1
      1/16" 1
      3/32" 2
      1/8" 3
      5/32" 3
      3/16" 3
      1/4" 3 or 4
      5/16" 3 or 4
      3/8 3 or 4
    2. Lap splices can be made by 2 oval sleeves. Keep a short space between the sleeves.
      Cable Lap Splice Instuctions
    3. A stopper can be made by crimping a button stop sleeve.
      Cable Button Stop Swaging Instructions
  5. Each HIT Swager has a gauge. Check a crimped sleeve with the gauge. If the presses portion won't go into the gauge freely, press the sleeve completely again.
    Cable Crimping Gauge Instructions

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Cable Puller General Warnings

Failure to understand and follow these warnings and instructions could result in property damage, serious personal injury or loss of life. Use of this product demonstrates an understanding of these warnings / instructions and the risks involved. Below is a list of general warnings.

  • DO NOT EXCEED RATED CAPACITY for pulling or lifting.
  • Do not use for overhead lifting. Do not lift any material above shoulder height. Keep all persons clear of load while suspended. Never allow persons beneath a suspended load.
  • Cable pullers are not designed for cargo tie down or load measurement. They are not approved for use as such by any government agency.
  • Inspect puller and its components prior to each use. Do not use if any part of the cable puller is visually damaged.
  • Never use handle extensions (cheater bars).
  • Do not use puller around sharp corners as this may damage the cable, greatly reducing strength.
  • Never load the hooks on the tips of the hook.
  • Do not use if the cable is kinked or knotted.
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Fraction / Decimal / Metric Conversions

Fraction Decimal Metric
1/64 0.015625 0.397 mm
1/32 0.031250 0.794 mm
3/64 0.046880 1.191 mm
1/16 0.062500 1.588 mm
5/64 0.078130 1.985 mm
3/32 0.093750 2.381 mm
7/64 0.109380 2.778 mm
1/8 0.125000 3.175 mm
9/64 0.140630 3.572 mm
5/32 0.156250 3.969 mm
3/16 0.187500 4.763 mm
7/32 0.218750 5.556 mm
1/4 0.250000 6.350 mm
9/32 0.281250 7.144 mm
5/16 0.312500 7.938 mm
3/8 0.375000 9.525 mm
7/16 0.437500 11.113 mm
1/2 0.500000 12.700 mm
9/16 0.562500 14.288 mm
5/8 0.625000 15.875 mm
11/16 0.687500 17.463 mm
3/4 0.750000 19.050 mm
7/8 0.875000 22.225 mm
1    1.000000 25.400 mm

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